Friday, July 22, 2011

DTN News - NORWAY BOMB BLASTS NEWS: Deadly Attacks Shake Norway

Defense News: DTN News - NORWAY BOMB BLASTS NEWS: Deadly Attacks Shake Norway
**Oslo Bombing Kills 7, Gunman Opens Fire At Camp
(NSI News Source Info) TORONTO, Canada - July 22, 2011: Norway's capital was shaken Friday by a powerful explosion at the government headquarters that left at least seven dead and several injured, an incident that was followed by an attack at a youth camp outside the capital.

The bomb blast in central Oslo damaged a number of buildings, including the finance ministry and the government headquarters, but Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, was unhurt, according to his spokesperson.

Associated Press

Emergency workers attended the scene as a building burned after an explosion in Oslo, Norway, Friday.

A large explosion ripped through the center of the Norwegian capital Friday, damaging a building housing government offices and killing at least one person.

"The prime minister is safe and he is not hurt," said Camilla Ryste, an official in Mr. Stoltenberg's office. The situation is "chaotic," she added.

Speaking on the phone to NRK TV, Mr. Stoltenberg said, "This is a serious a explosion and all available rescue personnel are at the scene to help the injured. My thoughts go to those who have been affected."

Oslo police officials said the explosion was caused by a bomb. Police Chief Thor Langli said during a press conference that the blast could have been caused by more than one device and that a car bomb could have been used, but that the police can't confirm other details yet. Mr. Langli also said Prime Minister Stoltenberg is safe and has been moved to a safe location.

"I was in no doubt that it was a bomb. The damage to the building structure was massive," said Sverre Rorvik Nilsen, a business reporter in Oslo, who witnessed the explosion.

"I was going to pass the front of the prime minister's office [and] when I was just around the corner a massive explosion shook everything around me and smoke could be seen billowing out from the prime minister's office," he said.

Police said they sent antiterror police to a youth camp outside Oslo after reports of a shooting there following the bomb blast at the government headquarters, the Associated Press reported.

The news site VG reported that a man dressed in a police uniform opened fire at the camp. It says several people were injured.

Oslo police chief Anstein Gjengdal said antiterror units were being sent to the camp at Utoya, outside the Norwegian capital.

Zoom out to see location of youth camp where shooting was reported.

He had no other information on that incident, which came hours after a bomb blast outside the government headquarters. Another Norwegian police officer said told NRK TV that they have received information that suggests the attacks were linked.

No on has yet claimed responsibility for the attack, which is the latest in series of incidents to hit Scandinavia.

In December a suspected suicide bomber blew himself up near a busy street in the center of Stockholm among Christmas shoppers.

In September, an Iraqi Kurd, one of three men arrested in July in the Oslo area and in the German city of Duisburg, confessed to planning an attack, with the target believed to be Jyllands-Posten, the Danish newspaper known for publishing controversial cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad.

The suspect was one of three men arrested when the Norwegian Security Service acted against a suspected terrorist cell operating in Norway.

Magnus Ranstorp, research director at the Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies at the Swedish National Defence College said Friday's events should be the context of September's arrests and the failed attack in Stockholm.

"What happened in Norway is what should have happened in Sweden," he said. Mr. Ranstorp suggest those who carried out today's attack could be part of wider network.

"Attacks of this scale are rarely carried out by individuals with a grudge, acting alone," he said.

Although Scandinavian countries have reputations as liberal havens, there is a long list of groups with grievances who could have carried out the lethal bombing in the centre of Oslo.

Strong al Qaeda offshoots exist in Norway and neighboring Sweden. The leaders of these groups considered Osama bin Laden a religious and philosophical guide, but have worked independently from his command for years.

Norway TV reported that a group called Helpers of the Global Jihad said "This is just the beginning of what will come," though the TV station said it's unclear that the group has taken responsibility

Inge Solheim, head of emergency planning at Oslo University Hospital, said 10 people with injuries, some serious, had come into the hospital and that he expected more to come.

"We are in a state of alert and prepared to receive more patients," he said. Mr. Solheim said roads to and from central Oslo have been closed down.

Oslo police said dead bodies remained in the government building.

Television images showed a body lying in a street littered with broken glass and a charred upturned vehicle.

A person at the scene said there was extensive damage to buildings up to 800 meters from the government building. "It looks like a war zone," the witness said. "There were windows blown out and broken in buildings far away from where the blast happened."

He said he could see six or seven ambulances in the street a few hundred meters away and a helicopter hovering in the sky. "I even heard the explosion myself and I live five kilometers away from the city center. I thought it was thunder."

Norway police has called for people to stay away from the city center and limit their usage of mobile phones. It said police, rescue services and medical staff were at the site for the explosion in large numbers.

"The police are working to grasp the magnitude of the damage," the statement said.

—Neanda Salvaterra contributed to this article.
*Speaking Image - Creation of DTN News ~ Defense Technology News
*This article is being posted from Toronto, Canada By DTN News ~ Defense-Technology News



DTN News: U.S. Department of Defense Contracts Dated July 22, 2011

Defense News:
DTN News: U.S. Department of Defense Contracts Dated July 22, 2011
(NSI News Source Info) WASHINGTON - July 22, 2011: U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) Contracts issued July 22, 2011 are undermentioned;



Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., Bethpage, N.Y., is being awarded a $760,783,000 modification to a previously awarded firm-fixed-price contract (N00019-10-C-0044) for the manufacture and delivery of five low rate initial production (LRIP), lot three, E-2D Advanced Hawkeye (AHE) aircraft, including associated non-recurring support. In addition, this modification provides for long lead materials and related support for five LRIP, lot four, E-2D AHE aircraft. Work will be performed in Syracuse, N.Y. (25.36 percent); Bethpage, N.Y. (25.10 percent); St. Augustine, Fla. (19.3 percent); El Segundo, Calif. (5.34 percent); Indianapolis, Ind. (4.84 percent); Menlo Park, Calif. (4.64 percent); Rolling Meadows, Ill. (2.50 percent); and various locations within the United States (12.92 percent). Work is expected to be completed by May 2015. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Md., is the contracting activity.

Canadian Commercial Corp., General Dynamics Land Systems - Canada, Ontario, Canada, is being awarded a $41,576,052 firm-fixed-priced modification under previously awarded contract (M67854-07-D-5028) for 111 field service representatives (FSR) to install engineering change proposals on 691 RG-31 Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles at the MRAP sustainment facility in Kuwait. The costs include mobilization, FSR labor, transportation, lodging, and tools required for the effort. Work will be performed in Kuwait, and is expected to be completed no later than Oct. 31, 2012. Fiscal 2010 Other Procurement Army funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. Marine Corps Systems Command, Quantico, Va., is the contracting activity.

Lockheed Martin Corp., Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co., Fort Worth, Texas, is being awarded a $38,287,457 modification to a previous cost-plus-incentive-fee contract (N00019-09-C-0010) for additional common aircraft sustainment spares, including carrier vertical take off and landing, short take off vertical landing, and carrier variant unique spares, associated with the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter air system low rate initial production, lot four. Work will be performed in Fort Worth, Texas (35 percent); El Segundo, Calif. (25 percent); Warton, United Kingdom (20 percent); Orlando, Fla. (10 percent); Nashua, N.H. (5 percent); and Baltimore, Md. (5 percent). Work is expected to be completed in January 2013. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Md. is the contracting activity.

Northrop Grumman Systems Corp., Bethpage, N.Y., is being awarded a $34,000,000 modification to a previously awarded fixed-price-incentive-fee contract (N00019-08-C-0027). This modification definitizes the previously awarded modification for the procurement of one additional E-2D Advanced Hawkeye low rate initial production, lot two, aircraft. Work will be performed in Syracuse, N.Y. (25.36 percent); Bethpage, N.Y. (25.10 percent); St. Augustine, Fla. (19.3 percent); El Segundo, Calif. (5.34 percent); Indianapolis, Ind. (4.84 percent); Menlo Park, Calif. (4.64 percent); Rolling Meadows, Ill. (2.50 percent); and various locations throughout the United States (12.92 percent). Work is expected to be completed in July 2013. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Md., is the contracting activity.

General Dynamics - Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine, is being awarded a $10,000,000 cost-plus-award-fee modification to existing previously awarded basic ordering agreement (N00024-09-G-2301) to provide engineering and management services for advance planning and design in support of the post shakedown availability for USS Independence (LCS 2). Work will be performed in Bath, Maine (72 percent); Pittsfield, Mass (20 percent); and Mobile, Ala. (8 percent). Work is expected to be completed by February 2013. Contract funds will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. The Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion, and Repair, Bath, Maine, is the contracting activity.


Science Applications International Corp., McLean, Va., was issued a modification exercising the third option year on the current contract SPM50004-D-BP13/P00127. Award is a fixed-price with economic price adjustment, integrated prime vendor contract with a maximum $112,514,498 for the material, and material management, of consumable items. Other locations of performance are Florida, California, and North Carolina. Using service is Navy. The date of performance completion is Sept. 30, 2014. The Defense Logistics Agency Aviation, Philadelphia, Pa., is the contracting activity.


L-3 Communications, Link Simulation and Training, Arlington, Texas, is being awarded a $20,563,657 firm-fixed-price contract. The instant buy for the Pakistan air force procures one aircrew training system (ATS) to support the Pakistan air force pilot training. The ATS consists of two F-16 Block 52 aircrew training devices, the mission support systems with 18 panel “simusphere,” and includes a new F-16A Block 15/52 ATS; a new F-16C Block 52 ATS; 21 months contractor logistics support (12 months on-site and nine months on-call); common ATS Block 15 and Block 52 software load; high fidelity cockpit; 360 horizontal X250; version MMC 7000 hardware and software; geo-specific database with high resolution inputs; full APG-68 version nine radar with digital radar land mass simulation; full weapons simulation; Maverick missile; targeting pod; joint helmet mounted cueing system; threat environment A-G and spot jamming; emergency procedures and malfunctions; and an instructor-operator station. Work will be performed at Arlington, Texas. ASC/WNSK, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the contracting activity.

*Link for This article compiled by Roger Smith from reliable sources
U.S. DoD issued No. 643-11 July 22, 2011
*Speaking Image - Creation of DTN News ~ Defense Technology News
*This article is being posted from Toronto, Canada By DTN News ~ Defense-Technology News



DTN News - INDIA DEFENSE NEWS: Combat Aircraft Bids Opening Soon

Defense News: DTN News - INDIA DEFENSE NEWS: Combat Aircraft Bids Opening Soon
(NSI News Source Info) TORONTO, Canada /
NEW DELHI, India - July 22, 2011: The commercial bids for the ‘mother of all defence deals’ - for 126 Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA), valuing over $10 billion, will be opened before July 31.

However, the winner of the contract - French Dassault or European Eurofighter - will be known only when the IAF finds out the lowest bidder based on various factors such as life cycle maintenance costs.

Highly-placed sources have indicated that the bids for the most-awaited tender will be opened within the next 10 days, before present IAF Chief Air Chief Marshal P V Naik demits his office.

“The bids’ envelope will be opened soon. But, the lowest bidder will not emerge immediately,” sources said and added: “We will be considering nine parameters, including life cycle cost, maintenance cost, cost of spare parts and so forth. The process is very tedious and will take couple of months before a price tag is put on the two down selected aircrafts.”

The opening of the bids will be followed by commercial negotiations around September with the vendors before the signing of the contract. “The contract negotiations will be based on 538 parameters based on which the IAF has arrived at a reasonable cost for the contract,” pointed the sources.

After a gruelling two years of flight trial in different regions, IAF had zeroed on the Eurofighter from the European consortium EADS and Rafale from French Dassault. Earlier there were four more contenders, including two from the US - Lockheed Martin’s F-16IN Super Viper and Boeing’s F-18 Super Hornet - Swedish SAAB’s Gripen and Russian MiG-35.

The sheer size of the order has made it one of the most coveted defence contracts of the recent times and all the countries have pulled the strings - politically, economically and strategically - to swing the decision in their favour.

The aircraft will help the IAF, the fourth largest air force in the world, to contain its depleting strength of the fighter squadrons which has come down to 32.5 from the sanctioned strength of 42 squadrons.

Dassault Rafale

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Several countries have shown interest in purchasing the Rafale.

[edit]Potential customers


The Rafale is one of the six fighter jets competing for India's tender for 126 multi-role fighters.

In April 2009, media reports surfaced stating that the Indian Air Force (IAF) had disqualified Rafale from the competition for not meeting minimum performance requirements of the IAF.[44]However, India's Defence Ministry dismissed these media reports and said that the Rafale was still in the race for the contract.[45]

In April 2011, the IAF shortlisted Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon for the $12 billion contract.[46]

Other bids

In January 2006, the French newspaper Journal du Dimanche reported that Libya wanted to order 13–18 Rafales "in a deal worth as much as $3.24 billion".[47] In December 2007, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi openly declared the Libyan interest in the Rafale.[48]Greece has also expressed an interest in the French fighter, possibly in exchange for its fleet of Mirages.[49] Libya did not order any Rafales; less than three years later during a Libyan uprising of 2011 in 2011, French Rafales were dispatched over Libya as a part of the 2011 military intervention in Libya; missiles such as SCALP EG were deployed from carrier-based Rafales.[50] During 2006, the British Royal Navy considered the Rafale as an alternative to the F-35 JSF, but decided to proceed with the F-35.[51][52]However the aircraft carriers will be modified in order to operate CATOBAR aircraft such as Rafales.[53]

In February 2007, it was reported that Switzerland was considering the Rafale and other fighters to replace its F-5 Tiger IIs.[54]The one month evaluation started in October 2008 at Emmen Airforce Base consisting of approx. 30 evaluation flights. The Rafale along with the Gripen and the Eurofighter were to be evaluated.[55] In September, La Tribune reported that a sale to Morocco had fallen through, the government selecting the F-16 instead.[56] In October 2007, La Tribune's earlier report appeared to have been confirmed that the Rafale would not be bought.[57]

In January 2008, O Estado de S. Paulo reported that the Brazilian Defence Minister visited France to discuss the possibility of acquiring Rafale fighters for the F-X2 program. In June 2008, the Brazilian Air Force divulged a Request For Information to the following companies and their aircraft: F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and F-35 Lightning II, Dassault Rafale, Su-35,Gripen NG and Eurofighter Typhoon.[58] In October 2008, it was reported that Brazilian Air Force had selected three finalists for F-X2; Dassault Rafale, Gripen NG and Boeing F/A-18E/F.[59] On 7 September 2009, during a visit by French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Brazil announced a pact with France and that the nations are in contract negotiations to buy 36 Rafales.[60] The crash of two Rafales in the Mediterranean off Perpignan on 24 September 2009 after a midair collision, comes at a delicate time for the Brazil-France negotiations.[61] On 5 January 2010, media reports stated that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the Gripen ahead of the other two contenders. The decisive factor was apparently the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs.[62][63] Some sources say that Rafale was chosen by the Defense Ministry,[64]but there has been no confirmation on this. In February, 2011, the press announced that the new president of Brazil,Dilma Rousseff, had decided in favor of the American F-18 fighter.[65] On February 28, 2011, the Minister of Finance, Guido Mantega, said the issue would not be resolved in the current year, citing "lack of resources", due to budgetary constraints for the new fiscal year.[66]

In February 2009, French President Nicolas Sarkozy announced that Kuwait was considering buying up to 28 Rafales, but with no firm order then. The same month, France offered Rafales to Oman to replace its ageing fleet of SEPECAT Jaguars.[67] But in 2010, Oman prefers to order the Typhoon.[68]

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) was interested in a version of the Rafale that would be upgraded with more powerful engines and radar and advanced air to air missiles.[69] They have now started to explore a purchase of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[70] This is reported to be because France's Defense Minister Hervé Morin has asked the UAE to pay 2 billion euros of the total cost to upgrade the Rafale.[71]

Leaked United States State Department cables have said that "French representatives have tried to spin the Rafale's dismal performance in the global market to be the result of U.S. government political pressure rather than the aircraft's shortcomings".[72]

On 28 April 2011, the Government of India MoD shortlisted Dassault Rafale along with Eurofighter Typhoon as a potential candidate for the US$ 10 billion Indian Air Force M-MRCA deal.


Rafale B/C
Dassault Rafale M.
Rafale A
A technology demonstrator that first flew in 1986. It has now been retired.
Rafale D
Dassault used this designation (D for discret or stealthy) in the early 1990s for the production versions for the Armée de l'Air, to emphasise the new semi-stealthy features they had added to the design.
Rafale B
This is the two-seater version for the Armée de l'Air; delivered to ECE 05.330 in 2004.
Rafale C
This is the single-seat version for the Armée de l'Air; delivered to ECE 05.330 in June 2004.
Rafale M
This is the carrier-borne version for the Aéronavale, which entered service in 2002. The Rafale M weighs about 500 kg (1,100 lb) more than the Rafale C. Very similar to the Rafale C in appearance, the M differs in the following respects:
  • Strengthened to withstand the rigors of carrier-based aviation
  • Stronger landing gear
  • Longer nose gear leg to provide a more nose-up attitude for catapult launches
  • Deleted front centre pylon (to give space for the longer gear)
  • Large stinger-type tailhook between the engines
  • Built-in power operated boarding ladder
  • Carrier microwave landing system
  • "Telemir" inertial reference platform that can receive updates from the carrier systems.
Rafale N
The Rafale N, originally called the Rafale BM, was planned to be a two-seater version for the Aéronavale. Budget constraints and the cost of training extra crew members have been cited as the grounds for its cancellation.


180 ordered,[38] 93 delivered as of December 2010[73]

Eurofighter Typhoon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Countries operating or ordering the Eurofighter Typhoon


On 2 July 2002, the Austrian government announced the decision to buy the Typhoon as its new air defence aircraft. The purchase of 18 Typhoons was agreed on 1 July 2003, and included training, logistics, maintenance, and a simulator. On 26 June 2007, Austrian Minister for Defense Norbert Darabos announced a reduction to 15 aircraft.[56] The first aircraft was delivered on 12 July 2007 and formally entered service in the Austrian Air Force.[57]

[edit]Saudi Arabia

After unsuccessful campaigns in South Korea and Singapore (losing in both cases to versions of the Boeing F-15E),[58] on 18 August 2006 it was announced that Saudi Arabia had agreed to purchase 72 Typhoons.[59] In November and December it was reported that Saudi Arabia had threatened to buy French Rafales because of a UK Serious Fraud Office investigation into the Al Yamamah ("the dove") defence deals which commenced in the 1980s.[60]

On 14 December 2006, Britain's attorney general, Lord Goldsmith, ordered that the Serious Fraud Office discontinue its investigation in the BAE Systems' alleged bribery to senior Saudi officials in the al-Yamamah contracts, citing "the need to safeguard national and international security".[61] The Times has raised the possibility that RAF production aircraft will be diverted as early Saudi Arabian aircraft, with the service forced to wait for its full complement of aircraft.[62] This arrangement would mirror the diversion of RAF Tornados to the RSAF. The Times has also reported that such an arrangement will make the UK purchase of its Tranche 3 commitments more likely.[62] On 17 September 2007, Saudi Arabia confirmed it had signed a GB£4.43 billion contract for 72 aircraft.[63] 24 aircraft will be at the Tranche 2 build standard, previously destined for the UK RAF, the first being delivered in 2008. The remaining 48 aircraft will be assembled in Saudi Arabia and delivered from 2011.[64] Saudi Arabia is considering an order of 24 additional jets in the future,[65] more recent reports suggest that number may be as high as 60[66] or 72,[67] but this may have been superseded by Saudi Arabia's request in August 2010 to purchase 84 new F-15s.[68]

On 29 September 2008 the United States Department of State gave approval for the sale, required because of the significant amount of American technology governed by the ITARprocess which was incorporated into the Eurofighter.[69][70]

On 22 October 2008, an aircraft in the full two-tone grey livery of the Royal Saudi Air Force flew for the first time at BAE Systems’ Warton Aerodrome, marking the start of an initial test flight programme for RSAF aircraft.[71]

Following the official handover event of the first Eurofighter Typhoon to the Royal Saudi Air Force on 11 June 2009, the delivery ferry flight took place, as planned, on 23 June 2009.

BAE has been training Saudi Arabian personnel at their factory in Warton, in preparation for setting up an assembly plant in Saudi Arabia.[72]

[edit]Potential customers


Eurofighter Typhoon is one of the bidders in the Indian MRCA competition, worth $11 billion, to supply the Indian Air Force with 126 "Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft". The other competitors are the Boeing F/A-18IN, Dassault Rafale, JAS 39 GripenNG/IN,Mikoyan MiG-35, and Lockheed Martin F-16IN Fighting Falcon.[73] Bernhard Gerwert, CEO of military air systems, said that India is invited to join the Eurofighter Typhoon programme as a partner. The production of the Eurofighter Typhoon will create thousands of new jobs in India and Europe. He also said that in order to win the contract, EADS would move avionics jobs from Germany to India.[74] The campaign is fully supported by the four European nations (Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Italy), their four Air Forces and Europe's leading aerospace companies Alenia/Finmeccanica, BAE Systems and EADS.[75]

In July 2007, Indian Air Force's (IAF) Sukhoi Su-30MKI fighters, which were at Waddington for the bilateral air "Exercise Indradhanush-2007", trained in dogfights with RAF Typhoons.[76]

In January 2010, India's ambassador to Italy, Arif Shahid Khan, said that the Eurofighter was "leading the race" to win the MMRCA competition.[77] As per the announcement made on 27 April 2011 by the Ministry of Defence, the Government of India announced that the Eurofighter is one of two fighters selected for initial bidding for the multi-billion dollar deal of 126 Multi-role medium fighter aircraft. The other fighter shortlisted is the French Rafale. [78]


In March 2007, Jane's Information Group reported that the Typhoon was the favourite to win the contest for Japan's next-generation fighter requirement.[79] The other competitors then were the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and F-15E Strike Eagle.[79] On 17 October 2007, Japanese Defence Minister Shigeru Ishiba confirmed that Japan may buy the Typhoon. Although theF-22 Raptor was in his words "exceptional", it was not "absolutely necessary for Japan", and the Typhoon was the best alternative.[80]The F-22 is currently unavailable for export per US law. During a visit to Japan in June 2009, Andy Latham of BAE pointed out that while F-22 exports were restricted to keep advanced military technology from falling into the wrong hands, selling the Typhoon would take a "no black box approach", that is that even licensed production and integration with Japanese equipment would not carry the risk of leakage of restricted military technology.[81] In July 2010, it was reported that the Japan Air Self-Defense Force favoured acquiring the F-35 ahead of the Typhoon and the F/A-18E/F to fulfil its F-X requirement due to its stealth characteristics, but the Defense Ministry was delaying its budget request to evaluate when the F-35 would be produced and delivered.[82] David Howell of the UK foreign office has asked Japan to help develop and adapt the Eurofighter.[83]


In 1999, the Greek government agreed to acquire 60 Typhoons in order to replace its existing second-generation combat aircraft.[84] The purchase was put on hold due to budget constraints, largely driven by other development programmes and the need to cover the cost of the 2004 Summer Olympics. In June 2006 the government announced a 22 billion euro multi-year acquisition plan intended to provide the necessary budgetary framework to enable the purchase of a next-generation fighter over the next 10 years. The Typhoon is currently under consideration to fill this requirement.[85]


During the 2008 Farnborough Airshow it was announced that Oman was in an "advanced stage" of discussions towards purchasing EF Typhoons as a replacement for its Jaguar aircraft.[86][87] Oman remained interested in ordering Typhoons in April 2010[88] though the Saab JAS 39 Gripen was also being considered.[89] Oman asked the USA for an order of 18 F-16s, which makes a Eurofighter order less likely.[90]

Other potential customers of the Typhoon are Denmark[91][92] and Romania. BAE Systems itself reports that Typhoon is "actively being promoted in a number of other markets including Greece, Switzerland, Turkey and Japan".[93] Turkey has indicated that it would rather just buy more F-35 Lightning II fighters and that the "Eurofighter is off Turkey's agenda".[94][95]

On 2 December 2009, BAE Systems stated it will propose the Typhoon as replacement for the Royal Malaysian Air Force(RMAF) Mikoyan MiG-29N which is to be phased out in late 2010. According to the Regional Director-Business Development Dave Potter, the Typhoon's multi-role capabilities allow it to replace the MiG-29N.[96] Other contenders include Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Boeing F-15, Dassault Rafale, JAS 39 Gripen NG, Sukhoi Su-35, and Lockheed F-16C/D block 52 Fighting Falcon.[97]

Serbia's government has shown interest in Eurofighter.[98]

The Qatar Emiri Air Force is, as of January 2011, evaluating the Typhoon together with the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, the Boeing F-15 and the Dassault Rafale to replace its current fighter inventory ofDassault Mirage 2000-5s. The total order will be between 24-36 aircraft with a procurement decision to be made by the end of 2012.[99][100]


In 2002, the MBDA Meteor was selected as the long range air-to-air missile armament of Eurofighter Typhoon.[101][102] Pending Meteor availability, Typhoon will be equipped with theRaytheon AMRAAM. The current in-service date for Meteor is predicted to be August 2012.[102]

In 2009, Eurofighter operators and manufacturers are considering upgrading the current fleet with the possibility of adding theMBDA Meteor missile and an Active Electronically Scanned Array radar.[53]

Eurojet is attempting to find funding to test a thrust vectoring nozzle (TVN) on a flight demonstrator.[103]

The RAF is working on fitting conformal fuel tanks (CFT) to free up limited underwing space for weapons.[104][N 2]


[edit]Airframe and avionics

The Typhoon features lightweight construction (82% composites consisting of 70% carbon fibre composites and 12% glass reinforced composites)[105] with an estimated lifespan of 6000 flying hours.[106]

The fighter achieves high agility at both supersonic and low speeds by having a relaxed stability design. It has a quadruplex digital fly-by-wire control system providing artificial stability, as manual operation alone could not compensate for the inherent instability. The fly-by-wire system is described as "carefree" by preventing the pilot from exceeding the permitted manoeuvre envelope.

Spanish Air Force Typhoon taking off in the RIAT 2007.

Roll control is primarily achieved by use of the wing flaperons. Pitch control is by operation of the foreplanes and flaperons, the yaw control is by rudder.[107] Control surfaces are moved through two independent hydraulic systems that are incorporated in the aircraft, which also supply various other items, such as the canopy, brakes and undercarriage. Each hydraulic system is powered by a 4000 psi engine-driven gearbox.[108]

Navigation is via both GPS and an inertial navigation system. The Typhoon can useInstrument Landing System (ILS) for landing in poor weather.

The aircraft employs a sophisticated and highly integrated Defensive Aids Sub-System named Praetorian[109] (formerly called EuroDASS).[110]Threat detection is provided by a Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and a Laser Warning Receiver (LWR, only for UK Typhoons). Protection is provided by Chaff, Jaff and Flares, Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) and a Towed Radar Decoy (TRD).[111]

Praetorian monitors and responds automatically to the outside world. It provides the pilot with an all-round prioritised assessment of Air-to-Air and Air-to-Surface threats. It can respond to single or multiple threats.

The aircraft also features an advanced ground proximity warning system based on the TERPROM Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN) system used by the Panavia Tornado but further enhanced and fully integrated into the cockpit displays and controls.[112]

The Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) provides the Link 16 data link.[113]


[edit]General features

MHDDs and pedestal panel with centre stick in the Typhoon cockpit

The Eurofighter Typhoon features a glass cockpit without any conventional instruments. It includes: three full colour multi-function head-down displays (MHDDs) (the formats on which are manipulated by means of softkeys, XY cursor, and voice (DVI) command), a wide angle Head Up Display (HUD) with forward-looking infrared (FLIR), voice and hands-on throttle and stick (Voice+HOTAS), Helmet Mounted Symbology System (HMSS) (known to test pilots as The Electric Hat), Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS), a manual data-entry facility (MDEF) located on the left glareshield and a fully integrated aircraft warning system with a dedicated warnings panel (DWP). Reversionary flying instruments, lit by LEDs, are located under a hinged right glareshield.[114]

The pilot flies the aircraft by means of a centre stick and left hand throttles. Emergency escape is provided by a Martin-Baker Mk.16A ejection seat, with the canopy being jettisoned by two rocket motors.[115]

[edit]Voice control

The Typhoon DVI system utilises a speech recognition module (SRM), developed by Smiths Aerospace (now GE Aviation Systems) and the then Computing Devices (now General Dynamics UK). It was the first production DVI system utilised in a military cockpit. DVI provides the pilot with an additional natural mode of command and control over approximately 26 non-critical cockpit functions, to reduce pilot workload, improve aircraft safety, and expand mission capabilities. An important technological breakthrough during the development of the DVI occurred in 1987 when Texas Instruments produced their TMS-320-C30 digital signal processor (DSP). This greatly advanced the packaging of DVI from large complex systems to a single card module. This early advance allowed a viable high performance system. The project was given the go ahead in July 1997, with development and pilot assessment carried out on the Eurofighter Active Cockpit Simulator at BAE Systems Warton.[116]

The DVI system is speaker-dependent; i.e., requires each pilot to create a template. It is not used for any safety-critical or weapon-critical tasks, such as weapon release or lowering of the undercarriage, but is used for a wide range of other cockpit functions.[117][118] Voice commands are confirmed by visual or aural feedback. The system is seen as a major design feature in the reduction of pilot workload and even allows the pilot to assign targets to himself with two simple voice commands, or to any of his wingmen with only five commands.[119]

[edit]g protection

In the standard aircraft, g protection is provided by the full-cover anti-g trousers (FCAGTs).[120] This specially developed gsuitprovides sustained protection up to 9 g. The Typhoon pilots of the German Air Force and Austrian Air Force wear a hydrostatic g-suit called Libelle (dragonfly) Multi G Plus instead,[121][122][123] which also provides protection to the arms, theoretically allowing for more complete g tolerance.

[edit]Design process

The design of the cockpit had involved the inputs from both test and operational pilots from each of the four partner nations from the feasibility and concept stage and throughout the design process. This has necessitated the use of specially commissioned lighting and display modelling simulation facilities and the extensive employment of rapid prototyping techniques.

[edit]Search and track system

The Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment (PIRATE) system is an infrared search and track system (IRST) mounted on the port side of the fuselage, forward of the windscreen.SELEX Galileo is the lead contractor which, along with Thales Optronics(system technical authority) and Tecnobit of Spain, make up the EUROFIRST consortium responsible for the system's design and development.

PIRATE operates in two IR bands, 3–5 and 8–11 micrometres. When used with the radar in an air-to-air role, it functions as an infrared search and track system, providing passive target detection and tracking. In an air-to-surface role, it performs target identification and acquisition. It also provides a navigation and landing aid. PIRATE is linked to the pilot’s helmet mounted display.[124]

Eurofighters starting with Tranche 1 block 5 have the PIRATE. The first Eurofighter Typhoon with PIRATE-IRST was delivered to the Italian Aeronautica Militare in August 2007.[125] More advanced targeting capabilities can be provided with the addition of a targeting pod such as the LITENING pod.[126]


Eurofighter 9803.ogg
Flight demonstration at WTD61Manching/Germany.
Gray jet fighter in-flight, adopting nose-up attitude against blue clear sky
A Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon T1

In 2004, United States Air Force Chief of Staff General John P. Jumper said after flying the Eurofighter, "I have flown all the air force jets. None was as good as the Eurofighter."[127][128]

The Typhoon's combat performance, compared to the F-22 Raptor and the upcomingF-35 Lightning II[129] fighters and the French Dassault Rafale, has been the subject of much discussion. In March 2005, Jumper, then the only person to have flown both the Eurofighter Typhoon and the Raptor, talked to Air Force Print News about these two aircraft. He said,

The Eurofighter is both agile and sophisticated, but is still difficult to compare to the F/A-22 Raptor. They are different kinds of airplanes to start with; it's like asking us to compare a NASCAR car with a Formula One car. They are both exciting in different ways, but they are designed for different levels of performance. …The Eurofighter is certainly, as far as smoothness of controls and the ability to pull (and sustain high g forces), very impressive. That is what it was designed to do, especially the version I flew, with the avionics, the color moving map displays, etc. — all absolutely top notch. The maneuverability of the airplane in close-in combat was also very impressive.

In July 2007, the Indian Air Force fielded the Su-30MKI during the Indra-Dhanushexercise with Royal Air Force's Typhoon. This was the first time that the two jets had taken part in such an exercise.[132][133] The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the MKI's radar during the exercise to protect the highly-classified N011M Bars.[134]During the exercise, the RAF pilots candidly admitted that the Su-30MKI displayed maneuvering superior to that of the Typhoon but they had studied, prepared and anticipated this. The IAF pilots on their part were also visibly impressed by the Typhoon's agility in the air.[135]

The Typhoon is capable of supersonic cruise without using afterburners (referred to as supercruise). According to the official German Luftwaffe and Austrian Eurofighter website, the maximum speed possible without reheat is between Mach 1.2 and Mach 1.5.[136] [N 3][138] Air Forces Monthly gives a maximum supercruise speed of Mach 1.1 for the RAF FGR4 multirole version.[139] It has been suggested, in contradiction to other sources that the Eurofighter Typhoon could only supercruise in a clean configuration without external missiles and fuel tanks.[135] While this is untrue, attention is drawn by these suggestions to the fact that not all weapons loadouts are necessarily certified for supersonic flight at all, even with afterburner.[citation needed]

The Eurofighter consortium claims their fighter has a larger sustained subsonic turn rate, sustained supersonic turn rate, and faster acceleration at Mach 0.9 at 20,000 feet (6,100 m) than the F-14 Tomcat, F-15 Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F/A-18 Hornet,Dassault Mirage 2000, Dassault Rafale, the Sukhoi Su-27, and the Mikoyan MiG-29.[140][141][142]

In 2005, a trainer Eurofighter T1 was reported to have had a chance encounter the previous year with two U.S. Air Force F-15Es over the Lake District in the north of England. The encounter became a mock dogfight with the Eurofighter allegedly emerging "victorious".[143]

In the 2005 Singapore evaluation, the Typhoon won all three combat tests, including one in which a single Typhoon defeated three RSAF F-16s, and reliably completed all planned flight tests.[144] In July 2009, Former Chief of Air Staff for the Royal Air Force, Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy, said that "The Eurofighter Typhoon is an excellent aircraft. It will be the backbone of the Royal Air Force along with the JSF".[145]

[edit]Air-to-ground capabilities

A Royal Air Force Eurofighter TyphoonFGR4 at Nellis AFB in Nevada, USA

The Typhoon is a multi-role fighter with maturing air-to-ground capabilities. Earlier than scheduled, the RAF integrated the air to ground capability, based on theRafael[146]/Ultra Electronics Litening III laser designator[147] and the Enhanced Paveway II/III laser guided bomb[148]under the "Austere" programme.[149] A more comprehensive air-to-ground attack capability including Paveway IV, EGBU-16 bombs and a higher degree of automation will be achieved for all partner nations with the Phase 1 Enhancements currently in development.[150]

The absence of such a capability is believed to have been a factor in the type's rejection from Singapore's fighter competition in 2005. At the time it was claimed that Singapore was concerned about the delivery timescale and the ability of the Eurofighter partner nations to fund the current capability packages.[151] With the planned Phase 2 Enhancements Eurofighter GmbH hopes to increase the appeal of Typhoon to possible export customers and to make the aircraft more useful to partner air forces.[150]

[edit]Radar signature reduction features

Although not designated a stealth fighter, measures were taken to reduce the Typhoon's radar cross section (RCS), especially from the frontal aspect.[152][153] An example of these measures is that the Typhoon has jet inlets that conceal the front of the jet engine (a strong radar target) from radar. Many important potential radar targets, such as the wing, canard and fin leading edges, are highly swept, so will reflect radar energy well away from the front sector.[154]Some external weapons are mounted semi-recessed into the aircraft, partially shielding these missiles from incoming radar waves.[152] In addition radar absorbent materials(RAM) developed primarily by EADS/DASA coat many of the most significant reflectors, e.g. the wing leading edges, the intake edges and interior, the rudder surrounds, strakes, etc.[152][155]The Typhoon does not use internal storage of weapons. External mounting points are used instead, which increases its radar cross section but allows for more and larger stores.[156]

The Eurofighter operates automatic Emission Controls (EMCON) to reduce the Electro-Magnetic emissions of the current mechanically scanned Radar.[152] The Captor-M was the first NATO-Radar with three rather than two working channels, one intended for classification of jammer and for jamming suppression.[157] The German BW-Plan 2009 indicates that Germany will equip/retrofit the Luftwaffe's Eurofighters with the AESA Captor-E from 2012.[158] The conversion to AESA will give the Eurofighter a low probability of intercept radar with much better jam resistance.[159][160] These include an innovative design with a gimbal to meet RAF requirements for a wider scan field than a fixed AESA.[161] The coverage of a fixed AESA is limited to 120° in azimuth and elevation.[162]

According to the RAF, the Eurofighter's RCS is better than RAF requirements. Comments from BAE Systems suggest the radar return is around one quarter of that of the Tornado it replaces.[163] The Eurofighter is thought to have an RCS of less than one square metre in a clean configuration by author Doug Richardson, although no official value is available.[154]

Expected production summary
CountryTranche 1Tranche 2Tranche 3A[53]Total
Saudi Arabia1244872
United Kingdom536740[54]160
The change in Austria's order from 6 Tranche 1 and 12 Tranche 2 aircraft to 15 Tranche 1 jets led to a reduction in Tranche 1 quantities for the four partner nations, with a commensurate increase in Tranche 2 numbers. 24 Saudi aircraft were taken from UK Tranche 2 production, and were to have been replaced at the end of Tranche 2, but will now be accounted against the UK's Tranche 3A total.
This marks an effective reduction of 24 aircraft in the UK order total.[55

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